Livestock Development Programmes

Animal Husbandry sector plays an important role in the strengthening the economy of the state, especially rural economy. Besides, AH sector is providing employment opportunities to unemployed and underemployed rural poor.

According to the 17th Quinquennial Livestock Census 2003, cattle population of the state was 21.22 lakhs. This consists of 81.76% crossbred animals. Buffalo population was only 64618. Total number of in milk bovine was 7.27 lakhs.

Breeding Policy of Kerala

The demand for milk and milk products in Kerala is on the rise and hence it is necessary that an appropriate policy to augment the productivity of the animals be framed. The productivity increase will ensure better returns to the farmer. Also this will keep the number of animals to be supported to meet the demand in control. This in turn will ensure better utilization of the scarce resources of the state.

It is envisaged to achieve the increased production by designing genetically superior animals and is possible by
  1. upgrading genetic potential of the animal including cattle, buffalo and goats.
  2. increasing the proportion of high yielding crossbreds in the population
  3. enhancing the reproductive efficiency of the female population.
Genetic Improvement

Jersey, Holstein Friesian are the two major breeds used for crossbreeding in the state. Jersey though not the highest producer is a breed well adapted to our climatic and economic conditions. However high yielding Holstein Friesian is used for cross breeding in areas where roughage and other resources are in plenty. Hence Jersey and Holstein Friesian breeds are accepted as exotic donor breeds for the state.

It is established beyond doubt that 50% exotic breed is the most appropriate proportion and hence decided to limit it to 50% and not beyond.

The systematic genetic selection programme for the proper implementation of the Breeding policy is being done with the assistance of the Govt of India. The average milk yield increase is recorded as 56.6 Kg. in the first standard lactation.

It is also recommended to bring in bulls from other parts of the country for cross breeding and the process is going on.

Elimination of genetically poor female population has to be done but not attempted so far due to economic constraints.

The breeding activity in the state being done by two major agencies. The Animal Husbandry Department is the implementing agency and Kerala Livestock Development Board is the supplier of the required genetic inputs and logistics.

Cattle Development

The cattle development programmes have been imparted in the state under the aim of increasing milk & meat production. Among them the most important is crossbreeding activities. The Intensive Cattle Development Programmes have been established in the state aiming at this.

Cattle Breeding

Cattle breeding farms have been established in Kerala for rearing high yielding varieties of cows and buffaloes. These farms are functioning as demonstration cum training centres with a view to providing necessary information and technical know-how to the public on improvement of milk production, cattle management, feeding practices etc. These farms impart farm training to livestock inspectors and vocational higher secondary certificate holders. Milk production and fodder production are other fields of activity.

(i) Intensive Cattle Development Projects

Intensive Cattle Development Project is an integrated scheme with specific object of stepping up overall milk production in a particular area to a targeted level within a specific period by improving the quality of the cattle through selective crossbreeding. The project normally covers a population of about a lakh of breedable cows and simultaneously attends to all aspects of cattle development such as controlled breeding, fodder development, balanced feeding practices and effective disease control.

There are 9 Intensive Cattle Development Projects in operation in the state with head quarters at Thiruvananthpuram, Kottarakkara (Kollam), Pathanamthitta, Idukki, Aluva (Ernakulam), Mala (Trissur), Palakkad, Kozhikkode and Kannur.

  1. Intensive Cattle Development Project, Thiruvanathapuram The project was established in 1984 as per G.O (Rt) No.1422/84/A.D dated 1-6-84. This project covers Thiruvanathapurm district. Under this project, there are five regional artificial insemination centers located at Parassala, Aralummoodu, Thiruvananthpuram, Nedumangad and Attingal.
  2. Intensive Cattle Development Project, Kottarakkara The project was started functioning on 16-12-1981 as per G.O (Rt) No. 2226/81/A.D. This Project covers Kollam district with four RAIC’s located at Kottarakkara, Kottiyam, Pathanapuram and Sasthamkottah.An embryo transfer programme was started functioning under RAIC, Kottiyam during 1997-98.
  3. Intensive Cattle Development Project, Pathanamthitta The project started functioning on 1-9-1990 as per G.O (RT) No. 22/90/A.D.dated 5-1-1990. There are three RAIC’s under this project. They are located at Pathanamthitta, Ranni and Mallappally.
  4. Intensive Cattle Development Project, Kattappana, Idukki The project was established in1991 as per G.O (Rt) No. 1639/90/A.D dated 10-10-1990. Under this project there are four RAIC’s with headquarters at Kattappana, Thodupuzha, Nedumkandam and Adimali.
  5. Intensive Cattle Development Project, Aluva, Ernakulam This project was established in 1969 as per G.O (MS) No. 503/68/Agri dated 11-12-1968. Under this project there are five RAIC’s located at Aluva, Cherthala, Vaikom, Mavelikkara and Kanjirappally.18 ICDP subcentres are functioning under the direct control of the project office, Aluva.
  6. Intensive Cattle Development Project, Mala, Thrissur The project was started with location at Mala during 1998 as per GO (Rt) No. 410/93/A.D dated 25-3-1993.There are four RAIC’s under this project with headquarters at Kodungallur, Kunnamkulam, Chalakkudy and Cherpu.
  7. Intensive Cattle Development Project, Palakkad This project started functioning on 1-3-1973 as per G.O (M.S) 325/72/A.D dated 9-10-1972.Three RAIC’s with headquarters at Palakkad, Shornur and Mannarkkad are functioning under this project.
  8. Intensive Cattle Development Project, Kozhikkod There are three RAIC’s located at Kozhikkode, Nilampur and Meenangadi.
  9. Intensive Cattle Development Project, Kannur There are six RAIC’s under this project at Kannur, Payyannur, Iritty, Kommeri, Kasaragod and Kanhangad.
(ii) Livestock Farms

Livestock farms have been established in Kerala for rearing high yielding varieties of cows and buffaloes.

There are three cattle breeding farms and a buffalo-breeding farm in Kerala under Animal Husbandry Department.
  1. District Livestock Farm, Kudappanakkunnu
  2. Jersy Farm, Vithura (cattle breeding unit is temporarily closed)
  3. Jersy Farm Extension Unit, Chettachal
  4. Buffalo Breeding Farm, Kuriottumala
District Livestock Farm, Kudappanakkunnu

This farm was established in 1953 at Kudappanakunnu of Thiruvananthapuram District. This farm is now a demonstration farm which consisting of different demonstration units consisting of cattle of cross-bred varieties such as Jersey, Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss; Goats of Malabari breed, pigs of large white Yorkshire breed and poultry of Australop, New Hampshix, Rhode Island Red breeds. A quail rearing unit and a duck-rearing unit were also functioning in the farm as demonstration units.

The main objectives of this farm are:
  1. Imparting training to farmers and students.
  2. Demonstrational farm to Livestock Management Training Centre, Kudappanakkunnu.
  3. For supplying healthy young ones of Large White Yorkshire piglets to farmers.

This farm has a total area of 34.3 hectares, out of which 15 Hectares are utilizing for fodder cultivation. Hybrid Napier the latest variety of Napier CO-3, Congo Signal, Guinea grass, Para grass are the different types of grass cultivating here.

Jersey Farm, Vithura

This farm was established in 1974 as per G.O (M.S) No. 337/74 dated 9/12/1974. This farm was established for producing high yielding cows by cross breeding indigenous breeds with exotic breeds. Cattle rearing unit of this farm was temporarily closed and a goat-rearing unit was established here on 27th March 2003. The main objectives are
  1. Supplying healthy males of crossbred Malabari goats to farmers.
  2. Supplying fodder grass to farmers.
This farm has a total area of 160.86 Hectares. 16 Hectares is utilizing for fodder cultivation.

Jersey Farm Extension Unit, Chettachal

The dry stock farm at Chettachal, Palode was converted as an extension unit of the Jersey Farm, Vithura with effect from 26th December 1979 as per G.O.(Rt) No. 2486/79/AD. This farm has a total area of 39.2 Hectares, out of which 14 Hectares is under fodder cultivation.

The main aims of the farm are (1) rearing of crossbred cows (2) production and distribution of good qulity milk and (3) production of good quality fodder. There are 6 cattle sheds in this farm- 2 calf sheds (capacity 30+10), 1 heifer shed (capacity 20), 1 pregnant animal shed (capacity 20), 1 milch animal shed (capacity 50) and a sick animal shed.

Buffalo Breeding Farm, Kuriottumala

This farm was established in 1981 with the following objectives:
  1. To breed and rear pedigree buffaloes of Surthi and Murrah breeds.
  2. To supply sufficient number of buffalo heifers for breeding purpose.
A cattle rearing unit and a goat-rearing unit are also functioning here. These units are functioning with the objective of producing and supplying high quality milk and producing good quality green grass. The farm has a total area of 161.56 acres, out of which 17 acres are utilizing for fodder cultivation.

(iii) Cattle Sterility Office, Aluva.

The scheme started as per G.O (M.S)/137/83/A.D. dated 21-5-1983.
The scheme is aimed at
  1. Screening of cross bred cows Heifers, Buffaloes to assess the infertility problems
  2. To investigate the causes leading to infertility problems
  3. To rectify the cause of infertility
  4. To publish data on the investigation made, results achieved and suggest ways to modify the breeding and management practices.
  5. To estimate minerals and hormonal level of blood/serum in animals for diagnosing infertility problems.
  6. To suggest proper treatment for sterility conditions by estimating mineral and hormonal level in blood serum of animals.
To conduct this scheme Cattle Sterility Office is functioning at Aluva, Ernakulam District under the control of Cattle Sterility Officer in the cadre of Deputy Director.

During the year 2004-05, 500 nos. of camps were conducted. The farmers attended camps were enlightened with improved knowledge in breeding, feeding and management practices for obtaining production through the group discussion. During this year 324 samples examined for estimation of minerals and hormonal assay in animals.

Goat rearing schemes

Goat rearing has a major role in creating self-employment opportunities in rural sector, which will foster the rural economy. Among the schemes for the welfare and upliftment of weaker sections of society goat distribution has great importance as it encourages them to take up goat rearing as a profession and earn a livelihood. Production and distribution of good quality breeds of goats is indispensable for the successful implementation of these schemes. To meet this three goat breeding farms were established in the state at Parassala of Thiruvanathapuram district, Kommeri of Kannur District and Attappadi of Palakkad district. Besides these, there are goat rearing units attached to the District Livestock Farm, Thiruvanathapuram; Buffalo Breeding Farm, Kuriottumala, Kollam; Jersey Farm Vithura, Thiruvanathapuram.

Goat Farm, Attappadi, Palakkad District

Scheme for setting up a government Goat Farm at Attappadi has been sanctioned as per G.O. (M.S) No. 374/79/A.D. dated 6-10-1979 with a view to help the tribal families of Attappadi to rear goats and sheep as a subsidiary occupation. Breeding and multiplication works have to be continued here. The kids born in this farm would be distributed to the tribal families in selected hamlets. Tribes will be preferred for the employment as shepherds, herdsman laborer etc.

The farm has been established as per G.O. (Rt) No. 1100/89/A.D. dated 20-6-1989 with a view to
  1. Produce and supply good quality kids for meat purpose.
  2. Improve economic traits of the local goat population.
  3. Function as foundation seed distribution farm.
  4. Function as demonstration cum instructional farm and to generate interest among farmers to take up goat rearing as a profitable business.
Goat Farm, Kommeri, Kannur District

This farm was established in 1965. Now this farm is functioning under Jilla Panchayat, Kannur. The farm is functioning as a farm to produce good quality Malabari goats.

The total area of this farm is 5.57 Hectares. An area of 0.25 Hectares is under fodder cultivation. The main aims of the farm are to take up selective cross breeding of different breeds of goats and propagating the best suited breed to the agro-climatic conditions prevailing in the state.

Goat Farm, Parassuvackal, Parassala, Thiruvanathapuram District

This farm started functioning on 8th June of 2002 as per G.O. (M.S.) No. 126/97/A.D of 1997. The objectives of the farm are to preserve, rear and propagate Malabari Goats and thus stimulate farmers to take up goat rearing as a source of income for livelihood and also to supply good quality fodder to farmers on nominal rate. This farm has a total area of 5 acres, out of which 4 acres are utilizing for fodder cultivation. livelihood and also to supply good quality fodder to farmers on nominal rate. This farm has a total area of 5 acres, out of which 4 acres are utilizing for fodder cultivation.

Besides these, three goat-rearing units are also functioning under this department at
  1. District Livestock Farm, Kudappanakkunnu, Thiruvananthapuram: 74 goats were produced in the farm during 2004-05. At the end of the year there were 64 goats in stock.
  2. Jersey Farm, Vithura, Thiruvananthapuram: During 2004-05 47 goats were produced and there were 61 number of animals in stock at the end of the year in this farm.
  3. Buffalo Breeding Farm, Kuriottumala, Kollam: 56 goats and 169.2 litres of goat milk were produced in this farm during 2004-05.
Pig breeding Schemes

The objective of piggery development activities in the state are popularization of pig rearing among farmers raising improved varieties of pigs and making available adequate number of piglings for distribution under various schemes, producing and supplying good quality pork etc.. These activities are conducted under the guidance and co-ordination of the Swine Husbandry office functioning at Aluva.

There are six pig breeding units and a pig-breeding farm at Kappad near Kanjirappally of Kottayam district. Besides these, a pig-breeding unit is functioning in the District Livestock Farm, Kudappanakunnu of Thiruvananthapuram District. These institutions function as demonstration centers and impart scientific training on pig rearing to farmers. The Swine Husbandry Office provides technical guidance to the officers in charge of pig breeding units.

Pig Breeding Units

1. Pig Breeding Unit, Mundayad, Kannur

This unit was established in 1982. The main objective of this pig-breeding unit, which is functioning along with the regional poultry farm, Mundayad is to produce high quality piglets rear upto weaning stage and distribute to the public as per demand.

2. Pig Breeding Unit, Angamaly, Eranakulam

This unit was established in the year 1966 along with Veterinary Hospital, Angamaly This unit is functioning with the objective of maintaining breeding stock and distribution of good quality pig lings.
3. Pig Breeding Unit, Thalayolaparampu, Kottayam

Year of establishment of this unit is 1963. The major objectives of the farm are (1) distribution of crossbred piglets to farmers of Kottayam and nearby districts (2) distribution of piglets to departmental projects (3) demonstration and training to farmers. The total area of the unit is 0.6 hectares.

4. Pig Breeding Unit, Kunnamkulam, Trissur

The main objectives of this unit are (a) to distribute highly pedigreed pig lings to the farmers for breeding and fattening purpose (b) to give training for farmers, veterinary surgeons and livestock inspectors (c) to conduct group discussion to farmers about breeding aspects and to control infectious diseases.
5. Pig Breeding Unit, Kolani, Idukki

The main objective of this unit is production and distribution of good quality piglets to public and Government schemes. This unit is attached to District Poultry Farm, Kolani, Idukki

6. Pig Breeding Unit, Parassala, Thiruvananthpuram

This pig breeding unit was established in 1964. Area of this unit is 0.22 Hectares. Following are the main objectives of this unit:
  1. supply of good healthy piglets to farmers for breeding and fattening purpose
  2.  imparting training to BVSc. & AH students and livestock inspector trainees
  3.  conduct group discussion regarding pig farming
  4. demonstration of various farm activities to farmers
  5.  extension services.
7.Pig breeding Farm, Kappad, Kanjirappally

This farm was established on 24th of November 1989. The capacity of the farm is sufficient to maintain100 female and 10 male parent stock. This farm has an area of 4.18 Hectares. The main objectives of the farm is to supply good quality piglets to farmers of Kottayam, Idukki, Pathanamthitta and Alappuzha districts.
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