State Institute or Animal Diseases


This office was established to control and coordinate the disease diagnostic activities of the Animal Husbandry sector in the entire state of Kerala. 

Major Diagnostic Tests conducted at SIAD

പേ വിഷബാധ - RABIES




MASTITIS - അകിടുവീക്കം

  • Brucellosis in ruminants - Rose Bengal Plate Test, STAT, MRT and ELISA
  • ELISA for IBR in cattle
  • Salmonellosis in Poultry - Rapid Plate Agglutination Test and isolation
  • ELISA for Mycoplasmosis in Poultry
  • ELISA for Toxoplasmosis in ruminants
  • ELISA for Swine Fever
  • Leptospirosis - Dark field Microscopy, Silver impregnation staining, PCR and Culture methods
  • Tuberculosis – Intradermal test, Lateral Flow test
  • Johne’s disease - Intradermal test and ELISA
  • Aspergillosis - Lactophenol Cotton Blue staining and Culture for isolation
  • FMD - Sandwich ELISAfor virus typing and LPB ELISA
  • Rabies - Negri body detection, Lateral flow Test and  FAT
  • Mycobacterium - Acid fast staining and Fluorescent staining
  • Canine Distemper - Lateral Flow test
  • New Castle disease - Lateral Flow test
  • IBD  - Lateral Flow test
  • Water analysis - Detection of microbial count in water
State Institute or Animal Diseases Office is also identified as the Network Unit of All India coordinated Project (AICRP) on Foot and Mouth Disease under the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR), a Collaborating Unit of Project directorate on animal disease Monitoring and surveillance (PD-ADMAS) under the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) and also as the Nodal Office of Southern Regional disease Diagnostic Laboratory (SRDDL), Bangalore.


  • Disease investigation during outbreaks.
  • Emergency response to disease outbreaks in Livestock and Poultry.
  • Referral support for diagnosis of Livestock and Poultry diseases.
  • Coordination of activities of Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratories Clinical Laboratories.
  • Disease surveillance
  • Research on animal and avian diseases
  • Screening for hazardous diseases like TB, Johnin, Brucellosis and Salmonellosis.
  • Training of Veterinarians and Para Veterinarians
  • Awareness creation of farmers and general public regarding existing and emerging diseases of Livestock and Poultry.
  • Functions as the link between the department and other reputed diagnostic institutions in the country                 
a)    Network Unit of FMD           
In the year 2000, the All India Coordinated Research Project on Foot and Mouth Disease identified the State Institute or Animal Diseases office as its Network Unit in Kerala State for Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Typing. In this laboratory, samples suspected for FMD from different parts of the state are being typed for FMD virus using the Sandwich ELISA method.  
b)   Collaborating Unit of PD- ADMAS            
During the year 2004, State Institute or Animal Diseases Office was chosen as the collaborating unit of Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance under ICAR. Chief Disease Investigation Officer is the Principal Investigator for implementing the mandates of the project, the important aspect being disease surveillance of the State. 

c)    Nodal Office of SRDDL, Bangalore            
 State Institute or Animal Diseases Office is functioning as the Nodal office of Southern Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Bangalore for the last few years. Recording of major disease outbreaks and compilation of the disease profile of the state are being carried out on a monthly basis under this project.


In the past, the ravages of animal diseases were not so seriously felt in economic terms due to the low productivity of animals and consequent low value of the livestock. Modern scientific breeding programmes produced a rapid improvement in the genetic composition of livestock and poultry and the resultant high yielding crossbred animals seems to be more susceptible to common as well as newly emerging diseases.  In order to combat this situation, a disease investigation organization was formed at the Veterinary College, Mannuthy, Thrissur with three Disease Investigation units namely Disease Investigation unit (Cattle), Disease Investigation unit (Poultry), Disease Investigation unit (T.B) and each unit was placed under the control of Disease Investigation Officers in the cadre of Assistant Director.

In 1975, the post of State Institute or Animal Diseases Officer in the cadre of Joint Director was created as per G.O. (MS) No.61/75/AD dated 27th February, 1975 and the three Disease Investigation units already functioning at Mannuthy were brought under Chief Disease Investigation Officer.  Thiruvananthapuram became the head quarters of the Chief Disease Investigation Officer.  Later, in 1982 the office of Chief Disease Investigation Officer was shifted to its own building at Palode in Thiruvananthapuram District on 15.6.1982 as per G.O. (Rt) No.1150/82/AD dated 23-4-1982.


Located at Pacha, Palode – 35 Km from Thiruvananthapuram railway station and 1.5 km away from Palode junction enroute to Karete.

Factual Notes

Place   Palode   
Village Palode Village
Panchayat Nanniyode Panchayat
Ward- XTaluk Nedumangad
TalukDistrict Thiruvananthapuram
DistrictArea 16 acres
Building Govt. owned building


A.    Technical

Sl. No Designation Post Number of posts
1 Chief Disease Investigation Officer Joint Director 1
2 Disease Investigation Officer Assistant Director 3
3 Veterinary surgeon Veterinary surgeon 3
4 Toxicologist Veterinary surgeon  1
5 Chemist Chemist 1
6 Livestock Inspector Livestock Inspector   1
7 Laboratory Technician Laboratory Technician 4

B.   Non Technical

Sl. No Post Number of Posts
1 Confidential Assistant 1
2 Head Cler 1
3 UD Clerk  1
4 L.D. Clerk 2
5 L.D. typist 1
6 Driver  1
7 Peon 1
8 Attendant 3
9 Sweeper cum attendant 1
10 Night watcher   1

 Laboratory Profile      

      State Institute or Animal Diseases Office consists of four well-equipped laboratories to undertake various diagnostic activities and referral support. Each laboratory functions under the direct control of a Veterinary surgeon with the supervision of a Disease Investigation Officer.

Laboratory Activities       

  • Pathology Laboratory
  • Microbiology Laboratory
  • Parasitology Laboratory
  • Toxicology Laboratory     


I  Pathology Laboratory

In the pathology laboratory, clinical pathology, post-mortem examination of samples, histopathology studies of samples are being carried out.

* Clinical pathology
  • Hematology
  • Urine analysis
  • Diagnostic cytology for detection of malignancy and inclusion bodies
  • CSF, Peritoneal fluid analysis

* Biochemical profile of clinical samples including mineral and enzyme status

  • Enzyme analysis – SGOT, SGPT etc
  • Mineral analysis – Calcium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Potassium & Magnesium
  • Liver function tests – Bilirubin, Protein, albumin, SGOT, SGPT
  • Kidney function tests – BUN & Creatinine

* Post-mortem examinations of carcasses
* Histopathology studies of tissues

  • Morbid specimensv 
  • Biopsy specimens          
  • Staining Techniquesü 
  • H & E staining 
  • Acid fast staining 
  • Methyl green pyronin staining for MD & ALCü 
  • Gridley’s staining for fungi
 II Microbiology Laboratory

In the microbiology laboratory, adequate facility for cultural isolation and identification of various microorganisms, antibiotic sensitivity testing of samples, various serological tests for the diagnosis of different diseases along with biological testing are provided.

* Isolation& Identification of pathogens especially bacteria and fungi through      culture, biochemical tests and animal Inoculation tests.
* Examination of blood smears for detection of pathogenic organisms.
* Antibiotic sensitivity tests
* Serological diagnosis

  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of Leptospirosis.
  • Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the detection of ü  Brucellosisü  IBRü  John’s Disease ü  Swine fever          ü  Avian Mycoplasmosis
  • Agglutination Tests

* Biological tests for confirmation of pathogen.
* Intra dermal tests for Tuberculosis and Johnes disease
* Dark field microscopy for the diagnosis of Leptospirosis
* Acid fast staining & Fluorescent staining for Tuberculosis   
* Microbial counting in water

 III Parasitology Laboratory
In the Parasitology laboratory routine examinations for blood parasites, ectoparasites and endoparasites are being carried out.Routine examination of clinical samples for the presence of
  • Blood Parasites
  • Endoparasites
  • Ectoparasites
 IV Toxicology Laboratory  

* Estimation of Aflatoxin level in feed materials by Thin Layer Chromatography.
* Qualitative analysis for detection of
  • Heavy metals like Sulphides, Iodines, fluorides and zinc phosphide
  • Plant toxins like hydrocyanic acid, Oxalic acid, Tannins, Nitrates and Nitrites.  

Special Diagnostic Facilities

The State Institute or Animal Diseases Office is providing special diagnostic facilities like PCR, ELISA, FAT etc for the diagnosis of diseases like

  • FMD
  • Rabies 
  • Leptospirosis
  • Brucellosis
  • Anthrax
  • Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR)
  • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)
  • Toxoplasmosis and
  • Swine Fever 

  FMD Laboratory Conducts serotyping of FMD prevalent in the state by ELISA testThe All India Coordinated Research Project on Foot and Mouth Disease          (AICRP on FMD) identified the Chief Disease Investigation office as its Network Unit in Kerala State for Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Typing in the year 2000. In this laboratory, samples suspected for FMD from different parts of the state are being typed for FMD virus using the Sandwich ELISA method.  The results will be communicated to the concerned officers and a part of the sample will be sent to IVRI, Mukteswar for further virus characterization.  
   Rabies Diagnostic Laboratory conducts rabies diagnosis by
  • Negri body detection
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique and
  • Lateral Flow Technique

The Rabies Diagnostic Laboratory of SIAD is providing a very valuable service to public by diagnosing Rabies so that immediate preventive steps can be taken by the exposed persons.         

1. Rabies diagnosis by Negri body detection

  • Result within 1 hour.
  • Method is sensitive to sample decomposition.
  • 15 – 40 % false negative result.
  • Only positive findings are diagnostic.                                 

2. Fluorescent Antibody Technique

  • Method recommended by WHO & OIE.
  • Results within 6 – 18 hrs.
  • 90 – 95 % reliable on fresh specimens.         

FAT Microscope                                             Positive result    

3. Lateral Flow Technique (Antigen Detection)

  • Rapid results (within 30min).
  • Simple methodology.
  • Minimum skill or infrastructure required.

A low incidence of false negative result possible 

4. Biological Test (Animal Inoculation Test)

  • A valuable confirmatory test in cases where other tests have yielded an inconclusive result.
  • Results within 3-4 weeks.

Note: - All samples found negative or inconclusive on other tests are confirmed by biological testing. Sample for rabies testing should accompany

  • A letter from a registered Veterinary Practitioner.
  • Full clinical history/ epidemiological data.
  • A testing fee of Rs.200/-
PCR laboratory Diagnosis of Leptospirosis by PCR Serum samples or whole blood in cold chain or tissue samples in normal saline in cold chain.
  ELISA Laboratory

    * Mycoplasmosis (CRD) in poultry
    * Swine Fever in pigs
    * Toxoplasmosis in sheep
    * Brucellosis in cattle
    * Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in cattle
    * Johne’s Disease in cattle

Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Test (AGID) for Blue tongue and Infectious Bursal Disease were also standardized and adopted. 
Technical Control of Labs SIAD has the State Lab status with technical control of all Clinical laboratories in the state under AHD. 4 Regional laboratories were established under SIAD.

They are
  • SIAD, Palode at Thiruvananthapuram,
  • ADDL, at Thiruvalla,
  • NPRE Lab, Palakkad and
  • DIO, Kannur.       
The Chief Disease Investigation Officer is entrusted with the disease investigation works of the whole state of Kerala.  For ease of operation, a disease investigation team was set up in each district. In an outbreak, the district team will carry out preliminary investigation. Further investigation, if required will be done by the regional laboratories. The control measures as well as the precautionary steps to be taken in each outbreak will be briefed to the concerned officers. SIAD will monitor the outbreak situation. If facilities are not available in the regional lab for a confirmatory diagnosis, samples will be processed at SIAD. The disease investigation team from SIAD will attend the outbreaks of serious nature. 
  Mobile Diagnostic Laboratory           
A mobile unit of Laboratory is also functioning under the organization for carrying out disease investigation in the field.              

Screening TestsAs a part of State and National eradication programs, SIAD conducts mandatory screening for diseases like Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Johne’s disease and Salmonellosis among livestock and poultry maintained in Departmental farms and in other private farms periodically.

Farm visits The disease investigation team conducts routine visits in various Government farms to assess the health status of livestock and poultry maintained in the farms.

Disease Surveillance


(a) Avian Influenza SurveillanceAs a part of national surveillance, SIAD along with other regional laboratories collects random poultry serum samples from different parts of the state and forwards to Southern Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Bangalore for bird flu screening. 

(b) Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) SurveillanceAs a part of national surveillance SIAD along with other regional laboratories collects bovine brain samples in formalin from various slaughterhouses in different parts of the State and forwards to Southern Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Bangalore. 


This has been an integral part of SIAD in disseminating the improved knowledge and skill to field veterinarians and Para veterinarians. 

Research Facilities           

The laboratories of SIAD is equipped with modern facilities to provide opportunities for advanced study research workers and post graduate students in various aspects.  


1 Laboratory Manual of Collection,
Preservation and Dispatch of samples.
2 Brochures

a.    State Institute or Animal Diseases
b.    Avian Influenza in English
c.     Avian Influenza in Malayalam
d.    FMD in Malayalam
e.    Rabies in English
f.     Rabies in Malayalam
3 ASCAD Data Book 2007
Avian Influenza in English 
Avian Influenza in Malayalam 
FMD in Malayalam     
Rabies in English  
Rabies in Malayalam 

Contact Address

PIN 695 562

PHONE          : 0472 2840 252
FAX               : 0472 2840 743       
Email             : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.